Как ИП уйти в отпуск и где взять деньги на отпускные

    Индивидуальные предприниматели тоже люди и хотят отдыхать, хотя бы иногда. Но если с отпуском наемного работника все понятно: ему положено 28 оплачиваемых дней в году, а периоды отсутствия на работе должны быть согласованы с работодателем, то есть ли право на отпуск у ИП? Кто оплатит ему отпускные, где нужно зафиксировать свое отсутствие на работе? А главное, как отразится отпуск на налогах и страховых взносах? Ответы, традиционно, ищем в законодательстве и разъяснения компетентных органов.

    Что случилось?

    Настала самая горячая пора в году — лето. Всем хочется не работать, а поехать на море или хотя бы на дачу. Полежать у воды, погулять вечерами, почитать книги и посмотреть любимые фильмы. Такие же человеческие желания есть и у тех граждан, которые занимаются бизнесом самостоятельно и зарегистрированы в качестве индивидуальных предпринимателей. Казалось бы, ИП сам себе хозяин и волен устаналивать самостоятельно режим труда и отдыха, а значит, и в отпуск может уйти в любой момент. Но на деле все обстоит не так. Права на отпуск у индивидуального предпринимателя, как ни странно, попросту нет.

    Отдых и отпуск у ИП — не одно и то же

    Право на отпуск, в соответствии с нормами Трудового кодекса РФ, есть только у лиц, которые работают по трудовому договору. ИП сам хозяин своего бизнеса, а значит, и уйти в отпуск не может, в полном смысле этого слова. Он не может начислить себе отпускные, а также не может делегировать свои полномочия личным распоряжением. Но право на отдых, гарантированное Конституцией РФ, отнять у предпринимателя все же никто не может.

    Итак, издавать приказов не нужно, начислять отпускных тоже, оформлять отсутствие также не обязательно. Но ведь нельзя же просто взять и уехать отдыхать? Конечно нет! Для начала нужно позаботиться о том, чтобы с бизнесом было все в порядке.

    Делегируем полномочия на время отдыха

    Если предприниматель работает не один или в сфере, где его кто-то может заменить на время отсутствия, то закон это не запрещает. Даже если нет наемных работников. В этом случае на время отсутствия ИП на работе вести его дела может супруга (супруг) или родственник. Для этого недостаточно просто передоверить ему дела и отдать ключи от офиса. Нужно обязательно написать доверенность на представление интересов ИП в различных инстанциях и заверить ее нотариально. В этом случае представитель становится законным и может не просто управлять делами, но и подписывать документы и даже сдавать отчеты в ФНС и другие надзорные органы. Чтобы к доверенности не было вопросов, желательно перечислить в ней все, что доверят ИП своему представителю, в том числе и указать перечень документов, которые тот сможет подписывать.

    Налоги и страховые взносы

    Если бизнес продолжит работать и во время отсутствия самого предпринимателя, то и вопросов нет о том, как быть с налогами и страховыми взносами за время отпуска. Но если ИП работает один и на время отпуска полностью приостанавливает свою деятельность? В плане уплаты фиксированных страховых взносов нет никаких поблажек. Они должны быть оплачены за весь год, независимо от отпусков и даже больничных ИП. Единственной уважительной причиной с точки зрения Налогового кодекса РФ является декрет и отпуск по уходу за ребенком, но речь сейчас не об этом.

    А вот начисление и оплата налогов целиком в этом случае зависят от выбранной системы налогообложения. Например, если предприниматель применяет УСН или общий режим (ОСН), то сумма налога, которую он должен перечислить в бюджет, зависит от его фактического дохода. Если ничего не заработал, то и платить ничего не надо. Другое дело льготные системы налогообложения с фиксированной суммой налога к уплате: единый налог на вмененный доход (ЕНВД) и патентная система налогообложения (ПСН). В этом случае сумма налога не зависит от того, заработал что-то ИП ли нет, поэтому за время отпуска налог также придется платить.

    Отпускные

    Понятия отпускных для ИП, как мы уже выяснили, законодательством не предсмотрено. Однако предусмотрено право предпринимателя распоряжаться всеми средствами, которые остались после уплаты налогов и других обязательных платежей, по своему усмотрению. Ведь зарплату ИП также не получает. Он просто переводит средства со счета ИП на свой личный счет и тратит их на свое усмотрение. Именно так и нужно поступить перед отъездом в отпуск.

    Но важно помнить, что если существует пластиковая карта, привязанная к счету ИП, не нужно расплачиваться с ее помощью за личные покупки или билеты, в том числе на отдыхе. Хотя напрямую такого запрета нет, это может вызвать ненужные вопросы со стороны налоговой инспекции. Лучше всего заранее позаботиться о переводе средств на личный счет или банковскую карту.

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